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Fastest Squirt Gun in the Fungi

first_imgA paper on PLoS One described the highest-speed flights in all nature: the spore discharge mechanisms in certain fungi.  A dozen scientists in Ohio worked to capture the action on ultra-high-speed cameras.  It took 250,000 frames per second to reveal how fast the projectiles accelerate.  The answer: from 20,000 to 180,000 g (where g = the acceleration of gravity).  One species launches its projectiles at almost 2 million meters per second squared – winning the title of “fastest recorded flights in nature.”    In their introduction, they discussed the variety of ways that fungi disperse their spores.  Their language sounds downright military: “Mechanisms include a catapult energized by surface tension that launches mushroom spores, the explosive eversion of a pressurized membrane in the artillery fungus, and the discharge of squirt guns pressurized by osmosis.”  Well, maybe squirt guns are for kid’s playground battles, but army engineers might learn a few things from these lowly fungi.  That’s why the authors said the study of spore-discharge mechanisms has implications for biomimetics (the imitation of nature).  Who else would want to imitate this?    The four species of fungi studied live on cow manure.  They need to launch their spores out far enough onto the grass so that cows will eat them and spread them around.  Each species has variations on the mechanism, but basically, the spores are ejected in a mass (either in a fluid or solid), within a sporangium, or capsule.  The sporangium usually separates during flight..  This trick, reminiscent of a spacecraft ejecting its cover after achieving orbit, allows the spores to minimize viscous drag on the ascent, then disperse on descent and landing.    How are such superlative accelerations achieved?  The answer lies not only in the structure of the catapults, but in the viscosity of the specific sugars and ions in the spore capsules.  The liquids allow the build-up of 4.4 atmospheres of turgor pressure.  As the “pressurized squirt gun” undergoes a “controlled and rapid rupture,” almost none of the energy is lost to friction.  The “supremely fast movements” represent a “a series of remarkable feats of natural engineering,” they said.    Engineers might be curious how these feats were designed.  Their answer was, simply, they “have evolved.”  The authors stated this twice: “A variety of spore discharge processes have evolved among the fungi,” and, “Squirt gun mechanisms are responsible for launching spores at the highest speeds and are most common in the Ascomycota, including lichenized species, but have also evolved among the Zygomycota.”1.  Yafetto et al, “The Fastest Flights in Nature: High-Speed Spore Discharge Mechanisms among Fungi,” Public Library of Science ONE, 3(9): e3237 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003237.It evolved because it evolved – this is the theory of evolution in a nutshell (see 05/25/2005).  This is sufficient to explain the origin of any feat of natural engineering.  It evolved.  Darwin sure simplified biology, didn’t he?  Scientists used to have to produce explanations the hard way, with logic and evidence.  Now, a simple two-word answer suffices for everything in the world that used to inspire awe, wonder, curiosity and motivation.(Visited 76 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

China Says It Closed 60K Porn Websites, Deleted 350 Million Pieces of Online Content in 2010

first_imgAh, the year-in-review, that ritual where we tout the best and worst of what’s happened over the last 12 months. For its part, the Chinese government’s year-end review chronicled the usual sorts of governmental achievements, but a notable success this year, according to officials, is the amount of illegal and “objectionable” content that the country has eliminated: “By November, 350 million pieces of harmful information, including text, pictures and videos, had been deleted,” according to Wang Chen, deputy head of China’s propaganda department. “There was a notable improvement in the online cultural environment.” Wang says that the government checked 1.79 million websites in its efforts to eradicate objectionable content, and more than 60,000 porn websites were shuttered. Of the almost 5,000 people suspected of spreading pornographic content, 1,332 people received “criminal punishment” with 58 jailed for five years or more.Of course, “obscenity” has a rather broad definition in China, and these government figures don’t include content already blocked in the first place. China keeps tight control over what Internet users can access via an extensive system of filtering and blocking – the Great Firewall, as its often called. Blocked sites include Twitter, YouTube and Facebook.Wang said in a press conference that he had heard that Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg was vacationing in China, but said that Zuckerberg had not met with anyone from his department. “We saw reports that he met with some well-known figures in China’s Internet industry,” said Wang. “We are also still trying to learn more about his visit to China.”There are an estimated 450 million Internet users in China, a larger online population than any other country. But as these censorship numbers – along with Google’s history in China – indicate, entry into the Chinese market is difficult. Tags:#Government#NYT#web 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hostingcenter_img Related Posts audrey watters A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai…last_img read more

Exactly How Many Academic Loans Do You Want For A Master’s-Degree

first_imgUber vs Lyft: Battling for Supremacy Cate Lawrence Glossary of Literary Terms1 manner of looking at authorship is constantly to think of your own writing as someone. I began composing a notice. You may also read the complete foreword on my own site. You’ve been composing for approximately five decades now, and you need to have a definitive, catchy type to your own creating. You are likely to make these mistakes regularly as you’re writing an extended part of essay. Now you’re prepared to start your very first publication. So, now you’ve written your book.As youthful school women, we are generally not secure and depressed.A sizeable part just about any school application is the composition or private statement. The replies to the 3 foregoing concerns are quite self evident.Supporters & parents restaurant one-onone consults with all the k.e.n.Contact her to find training help inside our site Because of its edition, you must make bunches of study before writing one. They may be normally updated and they don’t have an problem writing essays linked to present issues. Actually, it’s so distinct it to write for the internet we need to solve all we’ve labored to place, have to un-learn all we have discovered as faculty British authors. This can be the reason so many individuals decide to proceed for assistance on paper their private assertion for university. It really is quite useful that you review different people’s writing to recognize the straightforward predicates and fundamental topics. You’re fascinated in writing English therefore you should find a way to control every one of the sorts of phrases that happen in the englishlanguage.His sister was a friend of amandais at institution.If you’d like to write great Language you need to comprehend how exactly to set the words with each other to convey what you’d like to get over to your own viewers. Fairly simply, don’t embellish.Noella functions kris kringle art templates.He’d a fabulous love for kids They dwelt within the province by utilizing their buddy, my widowed grandfather. It was fascinating to view how my mother had taken the trouble to supply subtitles and comments to each picture which was included within http://www.paunchiness.com/how-to-present-essay-writing/ the record. Most of all, make sure you use your words in your writing. While mothers usually have a tendency to function as primary parent within the kid’s lifestyle, dads have a crucial part in the life and identity of the kid She needs to be much far from her dwelling, however, she returns dwelling to help her family relations. I was raised by only one mom.When you have done your application, you may begin obtaining jobs as being a content writer.The parenting processes of the mummy together with a dad share a whole lot of similarities and differences. Such a word can be crucial to communicate evaluations and connections. This is undoubtedly the most frequent category of sentence in the language of individuals of all ages. You should try to learn concerning this kind of word to get the nature of composing in English. When you create, within the start, you will likely build your sentence with a plain topic.The phrase chakra suggests “wheel” in sanskrit the vedas, in the oldest documents.Once you’re capable to assess phrases you might be heading to write better. You’ve got to learn what a sentence would be to write a superb word. Training this with these sentences. It is possible to examine the first essay and the modified essay.But evil hasbeen devote its position, and balance repaired.You do not require to write an essay. Conclusion is the final area of the essay your readers will experience. The decision of an argumentative composition is equally as crucial as the opening. Engineering composition should be educational and it needs to comprise of several crucial answers concerning the matter chosen.This informative article was published on september 03, 2004.In this composition, I’ll explain to you personally how these companies will http://ledesd.com/ways-to-producing-an-academic-research-proposal/ help you in your documents. Ultimately, never utilize complicated phrases inside your composition. CEOs in Troubled Waters (with Myriam Joire from… Related Posts A Review of Instagram Marketing by Matthew Lucas 4 Ways You Can Make Your Workplace an Engine of…last_img read more

5 Ways to Preview Audio in After Effects

first_imgMac Shortcut: (.) on numeric keypad or (Control + .) on main keyboardPC Shortcut: (.) on numeric keypadLike the previous technique, when you use this keyboard shortcut you’ll only hear audio. However, the preview will begin from the position of your CTI (Current Time Indicator).3. Preview Video and Audio Learn how to quickly preview audio in After Effects using these five simple techniques.After Effects isn’t a great program for working with audio, but I’m surprised at the number of motion designers who only use RAM Preview to preview sound in After Effects. Rest assured, there are so many other ways to preview your audio.Seamlessly integrating audio and video together will help your animations have more life. Whether you’re learning these techniques for the first time or simply need a quick refresher, here are five ways to preview audio in After Effects.1. Preview Audio Only From Beginning Mac Shortcut: Control + 0PC Shortcut: 0 on the numeric keypadIf you want to preview your final composition’s audio and video together, you’ll need to use RAM Preview. A RAM Preview will create physical video on your computer’s scratch disks which After Effects will playback. The only downside to a RAM Preview is that it typically takes a lot of time — but it all depends on the size of your project.4. Audio + Video While ScrubbingMac Shortcut: Hold Command and ScrubPC Shortcut: Hold Control and ScrubTo simultaneously scrub through video and hear audio at the same time, hold down Command while scrubbing. The only downside to using this method is the fact that it can be quite taxing on your computer to scrub through a video with a lot of effects applied to it. I recommend lowering your preview resolution if you use this technique.5. Scrub Audio OnlyMac Shortcut: Hold Command + Option and ScrubPC Shortcut: Hold Command + Alt and ScrubTo preview just the audio audio while scrubbing, simply hold down the command and option key while scrubbing your mouse across your composition. You will be able to hear an audio preview, but the video will remain still until you release your mouse.Pssst: By the way, if you need After Effects templates, check out RocketStock!Want to learn more about working with audio in After Effects? Check out a few of the following posts:Creating an Applause-O-Meter: Animation Synched to Audio in After EffectsAfter Effects Video Tutorial: Syncing Cartoon LipsFAQ: How can I play or preview sound (audio)?Have any other tips for working with audio in After Effects? Share in the comments below.center_img Mac Shortcut: (Option + .) on numeric keypad or (Control + Option + .) on main keyboardPC Shortcut: (Alt + .) on numeric keypadTo preview audio in After Effects from the beginning of your work area, simply use the above keyboard shortcut. This can be incredibly helpful if you’re trying to get your keyframes to match up just right with the audio but don’t want the video files to bog down your computer.2. Preview Audio From Current Locationlast_img read more

Harden has first 60-point triple-double in NBA history

first_imgHouston Rockets guard James Harden (13) shoots as Orlando Magic center Bismack Biyombo, right, defends during the first half of an NBA basketball game Tuesday, Jan. 30, 2018, in Houston. (AP Photo/Eric Christian Smith)HOUSTON — James Harden knew he’d have to do a little more on Tuesday night with the Houston Rockets missing key players.Even he couldn’t have imagined he’d do this much.ADVERTISEMENT View comments Slow and steady hope for near-extinct Bangladesh tortoises He set the scoring mark when he stepped back and made a 3-pointer before crashing to the court after being fouled by Mario Hezonja. He then made the free throw to give him 60 points and bringing the crowd to its feet.“Amazing (and) topped it off with a four-point play at the end,” coach Mike D’Antoni said. “But we had to have every minute from him.”Harden, who also had four steals and a block, grabbed his 10th rebound a few seconds later to give him his third triple double this season. He made 17 of 18 free throws and was 19 of 30 from the floor with five 3 pointers.He said he didn’t realize he was the first player with 60 points in a triple-double.“It’s a good feeling, I guess,” he said. “Just try to go out there and make an impact every single night on the game, however I can. Whether it’s scoring, rebounding, assists, steals, whatever it is. And tonight I guess I was doing everything.”ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ Read Next 2 ‘newbie’ drug pushers fall in Lucena sting Globe Business launches leading cloud-enabled and hardware-agnostic conferencing platform in PH NEXT BLOCK ASIA 2.0 introduces GURUS AWARDS to recognize and reward industry influencers Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:48NBA: Kawhi, George seek more for Clippers than beating Lakers01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City LATEST STORIEScenter_img Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Harden piled up 16 points in the first quarter and had 24 by halftime despite his early 3-point shooting woes. Orlando led 55-54 at halftime.TIP-INSMagic: Aaron Gordon missed the game with an injury to his left hip that he suffered on Saturday night. He will likely sit out Wednesday as well. … Simmons and Mack added 15 points each.Rockets: Ariza injured his left hamstring on Sunday. … Coach Mike D’Antoni said he doesn’t expect Paul to miss much time with his injury. … Clint Capela finished with 12 points and 13 rebounds.THEY SAID ITMagic coach Frank Vogel on Harden’s performance: “That was a heck of a performance when your second, third and fourth options are out. He’s likely the MVP of this year’s season. He did what he had to do to get a win.LOVE FROM LEBRONCleveland star LeBron James gave Harden some love on Twitter after the game , tweeting in part: “That’s insane G! 60 point Triple Dub. Sheesh!!!” The four-time MVP added five fire emojis after his comment to show how impressed he was with Harden’s game.UP NEXTMagic: Host Lakers on Wednesday night.Rockets: Visit San Antonio Thursday night. Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding Harden became the first player in NBA history to score 60 points as part of a triple-double and the short-handed Rockets beat the Orlando Magic 114-107.“I just gave it all I had tonight,” Harden said. “We all did. We all fought for 48 minutes, we got key stops when we needed to and we made big shots.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutHarden scored 18 points in the fourth quarter to eclipse the 57 points Calvin Murphy scored in 1978 to break Houston’s single-game scoring record. After Harden broke the record, cameras in the arena showed a shot of Murphy, who works on the television broadcast team, smiling and clapping for the Beard, who also had 10 rebounds and 11 assists.The game was tied at 107 after a basket by Marreese Speights with just under four minutes to play. Neither team scored for more than two minutes after that before Harden took over, scoring the next six points to make it 113-107 with 45 seconds left. Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Hezonja and Speights scored 17 points each for the Magic, who dropped their third straight.The Rockets started the game without Chris Paul, who has a sore groin, and Trevor Ariza, who is dealing with a strained hamstring. They lost another player when Eric Gordon, who is second on the team in scoring with 19.5 points a game, left early in the second quarter with lower back stiffness.“I looked at coach and said: ‘Eric can’t go,’” Harden said “He said go get ’em and after that I didn’t come out of the game.”Harden’s big night came as he played 46 minutes and 26 seconds, which was a career-high for a regulation game, with Houston missing so many players.“I was shocked to see that,” Speights said of Harden not getting worn out by playing so many minutes. “He didn’t really get subbed out and that shows the growth in his game and the maturity in his game.”It was his fourth 50-point game this season and Tuesday’s performance bested his previous career-high of 56 points set in November against Utah.“I have never seen a performance like that,” teammate Gerald Green said. “I caught myself just being a true fan throughout the whole game … what he did today was remarkable.”Orlando led by two points with about 9 1/2 minutes left before the Rockets used a 10-4 run to make it 101-97 with about seven minutes to go. Harden made two 3-pointers in that stretch, and wowed the crowd on the second one that he came as the shot clock was about to expire and with Shelvin Mack right in his face.Houston didn’t lead for long though, as Speights was fouled while making a 3-pointer and added the free throw to tie it seconds later.The Magic had a 2-point lead with about 5 1/2 minutes left before Houston used a 6-2 run, with all its points from Harden, to take a 107-105 lead with about four minutes left. Knicks rout Nets again to finish sweep of season serieslast_img read more

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