If Mars had oceans or lakes, it wasn’t for long, at least in the Syrtis Major region. Results of observations of the thermal emission imaging system (THEMIS) aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey reveal about four times as much olivine as previously recognized in the Nili Fossae adjacent to the Syrtis volcanic shield. Olivine quickly degrades in the presence of water. Philip R. Christensen, principal investigator, who published the results in the June issue of Geology,1 believes eruptive volcanoes were the primary source of the olivine-rich basalts, not intrusive processes like dikes or sills. The report on Mars Daily says the area studied is 11 times larger than the big island of Hawaii. Co-author Victoria Hamilton said that finding this much olivine in a “very old region of Mars” was intriguing, and suggests that this area of Mars, at least, “has not seen much water.” Nevertheless, other areas look like something flowed. Mars Express released an image of Ares Valles (near where the Mars Pathfinder rover landed) that looks like an extensive flood plain. Perhaps volcanic heat melted frozen groundwater for a brief flooding episode some time long ago.Update 06/06/2005: [email protected] reported that this could explain the methane. Rather than coming from living organisms, the methane could emerge from the olivine in a process called serpentinization. Chris Oze (Dartmouth) said, “I’d love to see bugs, but you can’t just go on hope. You have to consider the geological options.” Apparently, it would not require that much olivine to do the job, and now there’s probably more around than first expected.1Hamilton and Christensen, “Evidence for extensive, olivine-rich bedrock on Mars,” Geology, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 433�436, doi: 10.1130/G21258.1.Even if Mars had lots of water, and even if its atmosphere was able to shield out the harmful radiation reaching the surface, it would not necessarily have had life. This just erodes the hopes of astrobiologists even further. About the only lively thing going on is the occasional dust devil passing by (see movie taken by Spirit).(Visited 7 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Sign up for a free trial and get instant access to this article as well as GBA’s complete library of premium articles and construction details. This article is only available to GBA Prime Members Let’s say that your goal is to build a simple net-zero-energy home for your family. You insist that the home be energy-efficient, and you plan to include a photovoltaic (PV) array that is large enough to balance your annual energy needs.Your main stumbling block is that your budget is very tight. Is your goal attainable?Perhaps. Many builders have managed to complete a net-zero home that costs only a little bit more than a conventional house. If you want to take a similar approach, consider the following principles. 1. For a zero-energy house, net metering must be available Aiming for the zero-energy target only makes sense if your local utility offers a net metering contract. If your utility won’t provide you with a one-for-one credit for the kilowatt-hours that your PV system delivers to the grid, it’s going to be very hard to hit net zero.So clearly, step one is to buy a building lot in a community where net metering is offered by the local utility. (Even if you take this step, there is no assurance that the local utility will honor the provisions of the net metering contract for the life of the house. But it’s still better to start out with a net metering contract than it is to build in a region of the country where utilities are hostile to residential PV.) 2. Use an energy modeling program to optimize your home’s specifications As you refine your design, you’ll need to consider a variety of tradeoffs. For example, which approach will save more energy on an annual basis: increasing the attic cellulose from R-38 to R-50, or adding $1,000 of PV modules to your solar array?The best software to help you answer this type of… Start Free Trial Already a member? Log in
Union Sports Minister Ajay Maken’s attempts to reform sports bodies seem to have hit a roadblock.Sources told Headlines Today on Tuesday that some senior ministers were opposed to the Sports Development Bill, which seeks to bring Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) under Right to Information Act (RTI) among other things. Sources said ministers have reservations against certain provisions of the proposed bill. They plan to raise the objections after it is introduced for the Cabinet approval later in the day. They have objection particularly to fixing the retirement age and tenure of chiefs of sports bodies.Some Opposition leaders have also expressed their reservations against the proposed bill. Interestingly, most of the sports bodies are headed by politicians without any change at the top for years.Reacting to the Sports Bill, senior BJP leader V.K. Malhotra said, “It is draconian law and not acceptable to any international sports bodies. If age is the factor, then prime minister, Delhi chief minister and Pranab Mukherjee (Finance Minister) are all above 70.”Some BCCI members have called it a tool to harass the cricket body.Young BJP MP and BCCI member Anurag Thakur opposed the proposal to bring the board under RTI. Thakur told Headlines Today that it could be used to harass the cricket body.”I oppose Sports Bill. RTI is a tool to harass. There is no age limit for politicians and prime minister. First the (sports) ministry should look into Sports Authority of India. It is an attempt to hide Commonwealth Games scam. Politicians are required in sport bodies,” Thakur insisted.advertisementCongress MP and BCCI vice president Rajiv Shukla said, “I have not seen the draft bill. Show me the draft bill. How can it be under RTI when it does not take any grant from the government?”Former captains welcome moveFormer Indian cricket captains Kapil Dev and Mohammed Azharuddin favoured the BCCI becoming a national sports federation and falling under the purview of the RTI Act.Reacting to the developments on Sports Bill, former Indian cricket captain Kapil Dev said, “If government formulates a rule, the BCCI should follow the framework of the guidelines and I believe BCCI can work independently but must always toe the government line.” Azharuddin, a Congress MP from Moradabad, said, “It is good for sports bodies and their professional running. It (law) should be for all Sports Federations and there should be no exception.”Another former national cricketer Ajay Jadeja said, “The BCCI is really doing well but if the government is making some law then everyone has to come under it. As far as RTI is concerned, selection should not be a factor. Otherwise, BCCI should not be worried about the RTI.”Bill may affect ruling, Oppn parties alikeA number of politicians heading various sports bodies of the country for years could be in trouble if the Sports Bill becomes law.The proposed bill stipulates a maximum term of 12 years for presidents and eight years for all other office-bearers of the national sports federations.Among those who could be affected by the legislation of Sports Bill include jailed Congress MP Suresh Kalmadi who heads the Athletics Federation of India and the party’s senior leader Jagdish Tytler who is the president of Judo Federation of India.Leaders of main opposition party BJP, including Yashwant Sinha who heads the All India Tennis Association and V.K. Malhotra who heads the Archery Association of India might also lose their authority.Indian National Lok Dal leader Abhay Chautala was yet another politician who heads the Indian Boxing Federation.Left supports Maken’s Sports BillEven as some ministers and Congress MPs were opposed to Maken’s Sports Bill, it found support from the Left. CPI leader D. Raja said the BCCI must be accountable to government for the tax breaks it gets.”The BCCI gets tax exemptions and thus who is it accountable to. There should be some body that it should be answerable to,” Raja argued.
ENGLANDIt’s another pivotal few days in the pursuit of the Premier League title.Tottenham travels across London to the Olympic Stadium on Friday. A victory over West Ham would trim Chelsea’s advantage at the top of the standings to one point, with the leaders not in action until Monday against Middlesbrough.But if Mauricio Pochettino’s team can’t achieve a 10th straight league win, Chelsea will be able to wrap up the title next week when it follows up the Middlesbrough game with a trip to West Bromwich Albion on Friday.Middlesbrough will be going to Stamford Bridge clinging to its Premier League status as the northeast side sits six points from safety with three games to go. Swansea, which is four points and a place better off, hosts Everton on Saturday. Hull, which is just above the drop zone, hosts already-relegated Sunderland.In the chase for Champions League qualification, fourth-place Manchester City hosts Crystal Palace and third-place Liverpool plays Southampton the following day. Manchester United and Arsenal are left relying on City and Liverpool to slip up when they meet on Sunday at the Emirates Stadium.___SPAINIt couldn’t be much closer with both Barcelona and Real Madrid even on points.Madrid needs 10 of the remaining 12 points in play to dethrone Barcelona as champion and claim its first league title since 2012. If they finish level on points, Barcelona wins on its head-to-head record.Madrid has four matches, while Barcelona has three.Madrid visits already-relegated Granada on Saturday. Then, after the second leg of the Champions League semifinals at Atletico Madrid next week, it faces league matches against Sevilla, at Celta Vigo and at Malaga.The match at Celta was supposed to be played in February, but was postponed after heavy winds caused part of the stadium’s roof to collapse. Now Madrid will have to play two matches in the final week of the season with the title possibly still at stake.Barcelona has the advantage of being able to fully focus on the title before turning to the Copa del Rey final against Alaves on May 27.Barcelona’s biggest challenge will be beating a fifth-place Villarreal side seeking a Europa League berth at Camp Nou on Saturday. It then has games at Las Palmas and back at home versus Eibar in the final round.By Joseph Wilson in Barcelona.___ITALYTreble-chasing Juventus can secure an unprecedented sixth straight Serie A title this weekend if results go its way.A win in the derby at home against Torino on Saturday would see the team move 12 points clear of Roma, which visits AC Milan the following day.Milan is still looking for its first win under its new Chinese owners and anything but a victory for Roma would hand Juventus the trophy because there will be only three rounds remaining. A draw would also be enough for Juventus if Roma loses at Milan.Juventus is currently on a league record run of 33 straight victories at home. If Juventus does not clinch the title this weekend, it could win it the following Sunday — at Roma.Since Serie A was founded in 1929, no club has won more than five straight titles. Torino won five consecutive titles from 1943-49 (including a season that was canceled because of World War II), Inter Milan took five straight from 2006-10 and Juventus claimed the same from 1931-35 before its current streak.Third-place Napoli, which is a point behind Roma, will be mathematically out of the title race if Juventus beats Torino, no matter how it does at home against Cagliari.By Daniella Matar in Milan.___FRANCEAlthough Monaco looks to be heading out of Europe after losing to Juventus in the Champions League, it can virtually wrap up the French title if results go its way this weekend.PSG trails Monaco by three points and has an inferior goal difference. While PSG has three games remaining, Monaco has four.If Monaco wins at relegation-threatened Nancy and Paris Saint-Germain surprisingly loses at home against last-place Bastia on Saturday, Monaco would all but seal the title because its goal difference is 20 better than PSG’s. However, that remains an outside possibility given that PSG is unbeaten at home, conceding only six goals in 17 games.PSG needs to prove a point, too, following last Sunday’s demoralizing 3-1 loss at Nice. The criticism has been severe following PSG’s fifth league loss of the campaign — all away from home — and coach Unai Emery is feeling the pressure.Third-place Nice is only three points behind PSG but has a tough trip at improving Marseille on Sunday.By Jerome Pugmire in Monaco.___GERMANYWith the title already wrapped up, Bayern Munich forward Thomas Mueller wants to “have fun again” for the remaining three games.It starts at home against Darmstadt, the last-place team all but certain to be relegated on Saturday.More important games take place elsewhere, with Borussia Dortmund hosting Hoffenheim on Saturday for a game that potentially decides which will qualify directly for the Champions League and which goes into the playoffs. Europa League qualification is at stake for Werder Bremen at Cologne and Schalke at Freiburg.At the other end of the standings, Hamburger SV hosts Mainz in a relegation battle Sunday. Wolfsburg, level with both, visits Eintracht Frankfurt on Saturday.By Ciaran Fahey in Berlin.TweetPinShare0 Shares