EIA: Coal’s share of U.S. electricity market to fall to 22% by 2020 FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享S&P Global Market Intelligence ($):The U.S. Energy Information Administration trimmed expectations for domestic coal production in 2019 by about 2.0% compared to an outlook released in August.Total coal production for 2019 is expected to total 673.9 million tons in 2019, down from the 687.9 million tons of production forecasted in the August edition of its “Short Term Energy Outlook.” Coal production is expected to fall even further in 2020 to 617.3 million tons, a decrease of 18.3% compared to production levels reported in 2018.The EIA expects the share of U.S. generation from coal will average just 25% in 2019 and 22% in 2020, down from 28% in 2018. As coal generation drops, natural gas and renewable energy resources are expected to gain a larger share of total generation.Coal consumption in the U.S. is expected to total 593.4 million tons in 2019 and 548.4 million tons in 2020, a decline from 687.3 million tons in 2018. Meanwhile, the export markets for coal is expected to weaken going forward as higher freight costs and uncertainty in metallurgical coal markets dampen international demand for coal.The EIA projects Central Appalachia coal production will fall from 200.1 million tons of in 2018 to 183.0 million tons in 2019 before falling even further to 151.1 million tons in 2020. Western coal production is expected to drop off from 418.3 million tons in 2018 to 363.6 million tons in 2019 before falling to 338.6 million tons in 2020. Coal from the Interior of the U.S. is expected to decline from 137.1 million tons to 127.4 million tons between last year and 2019, but then remains roughly level at 127.7 million tons of production in 2020, according to the EIA forecast.The outlook also suggests a significant decline in total exports, dropping 18.5% to 94.2 million tons for 2019 before falling another 9.0% to 85.7 million tons in 2020. Both metallurgical and steam coal exports are expected to decline year-over-year in 2019 and 2020.More ($): EIA trims 2019 coal production outlook in new report
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Shell pulls out of planned Lake Charles LNG export project in Louisiana FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Reuters:Royal Dutch Shell Plc pulled out of a major liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant under development in Louisiana following the recent crash in oil and natural gas prices, in a move that resulted in its partner, Energy Transfer LP, delaying their final decision on going ahead with the project to next year.Lake Charles is one of several LNG export projects based around the world that have been delayed in recent months by the collapse in global energy prices. Global LNG demand has been hitting new record highs for years, thanks to big demand from Asian nations like China and India as they diversify away from dirtier coal power generation.However, the crash in oil and gas prices has caused major LNG exporters like Qatar and oil giant ExxonMobil Corp to put off gigantic new facilities or expansions of existing projects. U.S. gas prices have recently dropped to their lowest since 1995.“It’s telling that (Shell) a major would walk away from a major outlet for long-term gas supply,” said Ira Joseph, head of global gas and power analytics at S&P Global Platts, noting that storage, port and pipeline work was already in place on the project.Analysts have anticipated that a number of the projects under development worldwide would not come to fruition. In total, U.S. energy firms alone are developing over 50 billion cubic feet per day (bcfd) of new export capacity – more than all the worldwide consumption of LNG in 2019, which was about 46.3 bcfd, according to Refinitiv Eikon data.The Lake Charles project, one of a number of large LNG facilities planned in the wake of the U.S. shale boom, envisaged converting Energy Transfer’s existing import and regasification facility into a 2.2-bcfd export facility. Energy Transfer said it expects to make a final investment decision by early 2021 on whether to build the plant, a delay from its earlier timeline for a decision by late 2020.[Scott DiSavino, Shradha Singh]More: Shell drops out of major U.S. LNG project, Energy Transfer delays decision
Big Meadows Lodge as it looked in ’67 – Photo by Henry Heatwole as featured at Guide to SNPIn my last post I mentioned that I had come across a book introduced to me by Patrick Fritz of Shenandoah National Park. But after finding that the book had been converted to the web, I decided I couldn’t wait to put this information up for everyone to check out, if you haven’t already.Back in the 60s and 70s there weren’t many other people who could have claimed to be more attuned to the lush and lively forests of Shenandoah National Park than a man named Henry Heatwole. Heatwole enjoyed following the tradition of his family by frequenting the mountains of Virginia with his own wife and children for years, mostly visiting Shenandoah National Park. Throughout many of those years he and his wife Milly (who assisted Heatwole immensely with his research and exercised her own interest in botany), would spend nine months or so of each year living out of a travel trailer parked at Big Meadows, researching, documenting, and hiking, before voyaging southwest to Mexico for the winters.Camera equipment Heatwole used for close-up photography in ShenandoahHe observed every detail of every trail and documented them by way of film and pen with beautiful precision on both ends. Eventually both he and Milly came to volunteer for the park helping seasonal naturalists with their campfire talks and assisting in modernizing the audio facilities at the Big Meadows Visitor Center. Spending so much time at the park, it became apparent that he should write a book on the subject. In 1978 the Shenandoah National Park Association (then the Shenandoah Natural History Association), published the first edition of his book, A Guide to Shenandoah National Park and Skyline Drive, a book which he revised four times before passing in 1989.Loaded with outstanding trail recommendations and notes on nearly every aspect of the park from geology to history to flora and fauna, the book is an indispensable relic—despite being out of print—and serves as a preferred handbook to park rangers and employees of Shenandoah National Park as well as the thousands who bought it in it’s day. The effort to preserve the book continues, spearheaded by Heawole’s son Tony and ex-SNPA board member Kevin Heanue. The SNPA and the Potomac Appalachian Trail Club got together (with the help of family, friends, and many others) and trekked the park in sections, revising the book yet again to reflect the changing landscapes, only this time publishing via the internet where the information exists on their website and can be more easily updated in the future and utilized by anyone.Heatwole’s photograph of a Leaf Beetle at ShenandoahDuring revisions, extra care has been taken to preserve Heatwole’s original words and the essence of his style—even his hand drawn maps—while taking the necessary changes into account, and his legendary Shenandoah manual lives on. The recommended hikes section is outstanding, but you may also find great joy (as I did) in some of his film photography which has been uploaded and archived as well, most of which he once featured in his 70s Shenandoah slideshow called the “Shenandoah Sampler.”All in all, a great resource from a great man who’s work lives on. Happy trails.
Here is your outdoor news bulletin for March 25, 2013:Whitewater U.S. Open Cut ShortA system malfunction at the Duke energy hydroelectric power plant put the kibosh on the second day of this past weekend’s Bank of America Whitewater U.S. Open Slalom and Wildwater races at the Nantahala Outdoor Center. The station was unable to make the water releases Sunday, meaning there was not enough water flowing through the NOC to support the two scheduled races so they were cancelled and winners chosen based on Saturday’s scores. Competitors may have actually breathed a sigh of relief to not have to race in Sunday’s conditions. Let’s hope Duke can fix their issues before the NOC hosts two other high-profile events: the U.S. Freestyle Team Trials in late April and the ICF Freestyle Kayaking World Championships in September.The Citizen-Times has a full report, including a list of winners.Diversity in Conservation, (or lack thereof)The lack of diversity in the outdoors is something this magazine has covered before, and is no secret. In a piece in the Washington Post, Darryl Fears puts the spotlight on lack of diversity in the conservation sector. No one can deny that most conservation groups are made up of rich, white men, even though minorities communities – African American, Latino, Native American – are exposed to a disproportionate amount of the nation’s toxic pollution. The article also explains the long history of discrimination in the conservation and green movement along with what groups like the the African American Environmentalist Association are doing about it.Virginia Mountain Bike Trail UpdateThe Richmond Times-Dispatch claims the Virginia Mountain Bike Trail is coming together. BRO reported on Chris Scott’s attempt to build singletrack from one end of the state to the other back in September (worth a look, there’s a video!), and the RTD article does not provide much more info despite its claims. What it does do is provide Scott with a microphone to call to action all those who want to be involved in the project, mainly on the trail maintenance end. WIth 480 miles of trail to keep clear, that is the biggest challenge facing the completion of the trail. That and not having to carry all your camping gear with you up 65,000 feet of total elevation gain, but that’s an issue for another time. Also, reading the quotes I can imaging Scott’s mellow voice and atitude coming through my brain. It makes me chuckle.
Camper Sleepwalks Off CliffSlade, KentuckyDuring a camping trip in Kentucky’s Red River Gorge, a man took a dangerous tumble while sleepwalking. He fell 60 feet off a cliff and landed in a boulder garden. Friends of the unidentified Ohio man noticed he was missing from their campsite near Grey’s Arch Trail, so they called authorities for help. The camper is expected to make a full recovery despite suffering a head injury, dislocated shoulder, and fractured leg.Appalachian Trail Thru-HikeA Family AffairIn late summer, a couple from Maine, along with their 9-year-old son and 8-year-old daughter, became just the sixteenth family with young children to complete a thru-hike of the Appalachian Trail. Parents David and Emily Kallin took their children Nathan and Maddy down to Springer Mountain in March, and through the summer the family hiked 2,185 miles toward their home state, finishing the trail on August 31. The family finished the journey six weeks earlier than expected (just in time for the kids to get back to school) and along the way each member went through at least three pairs of hiking shoes. Their dog, Orion, also completed the hike.Pipestem State Park Gets CreativePipestem, West virginiaMost state parks just have the basics: some trails, campsites, and picnic tables. But officials at Pipestem State Park have come up with some creative ways to attract new guests. In addition to a network of hiking trails and well-known cross-country skiing options in the winter, the 4,000-acre park in southern West Virginia now offers some unexpected activities like slacklining, the yard games gaga ball and Murbles, and even an off-road radio control race track. The park’s activities coordinator Kim Hawkins told the Charleston Gazette that she wants to provide unique recreation activities to lure more people outside. The effort has also included the addition of an 18-hole disc golf course, and plans are in the works for human-sized versions of the board games Sorry and Monopoly, which will find guests actually being the game pieces.No Drones Over the A.T.The National Park Service isn’t cool with drones flying over the Appalachian Trail. In late August, the NPS announced an interim rule that bans “launching, landing, or operating unmanned aircraft from or on Appalachian National Scenic Trail lands,” according to the Associated Press. Concerned that drones are disrupting visitors or park resources, the park service stated the ban is open-ended until permanent regulations can be developed. Park service officials said complaints have come from visitors about noises made by drones, which are often used to take photos or videos.Beyond the Blue RidgeJetpack RunningTempe, ArizonaLooking for a running boost? A student research team at Arizona State University just might have developed what you’re looking for. The 4MM (also known as 4 Minute Mile) is a wearable jetpack that was specifically created to make someone run faster. The pack prototype was designed as part of a school project in which students are tasked with meeting industry challenges. In this case, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) was looking for a way to make soldiers more agile during combat situations. During recent prototype testing of the 4MM, a fit runner shed 18 seconds off his normal 5:20 mile time, down to 5:02.Virtual Park RangerKent, OhioIf you’ve ever wished a park ranger was more accessible to give you trail directions or details on flora and fauna, you soon may have help at your fingertips. Researchers at Kent State University are creating a new mobile app that will offer a detailed guide to Ohio’s Cuyahoga Valley National Park. The school received a $952,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to make a new app with interactive features that offer visitors the ability to learn about “the history, habitats, geology and scientific features of the park.” While apps already exist offering basic national park information, the new Cuyahoga Valley app will reportedly be much more detailed, and if successful, the platform will be extended to other parks across the country.Building BASE JumpMiami, FloridaMiami recently approved plans to build a 1,000-foot observation tower in the middle of the city’s downtown area. With its uniquely shaped design, the new SkyRise Miami is intended to be an iconic architectural structure like Seattle’s Space Needle. In addition to a nightclub, movie theater, and other South Florida-style entertainment attractions, the new building will also offer some thrills for the adventurous. On the building’s website, an attraction called SkyRise Drop is listed as a free-fall experience that is inspired by BASE Jumping and sky diving, promising to be ”just like parachuting out of an airplane.”
DEPARTMENTSCHATTERChatter is a Monthly collection of Reader Reactions to previous BRO IssuesCONTRIBUTORSWorst road trip moment?EDITOR’S NOTEA river goes to courtFLASHPOINTDoes nature have rights?QUICK HITSThe A.T.’s bionic woman • Running doc saves second life during race • Blue Ridge tops list of national conservation prioritiesTHE GOODSRecord-breaking runner Michael Wardian selects his go-to gearTRAIL MIXWest Virginia’s 20-year-old tunesmith Christian LopezFEATURESTOP ADVENTURE DOG PHOTO CONTESTWe received over 365 photos (and nearly 15,400 votes) for our third annual contest! Our winner this year is a bit of tear jerker.WOLF WARSThe last 100 red wolves live in a North Carolina wildlife sanctuary. Hunters and the N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission want to shut it down.TURN IT OFFSocial media is changing the way we play. Does Strava enhance or erode the outdoor experience? Does paddling porn amplify adventure or push danger too far?THE BARN THAT LOVE BUILTA Gay Married Couple In W.Va. Open a World-Class B&BMYSTERY MOVESSquirt Boating World Championships Celebrate Underwater Boat DancingLOOK OUT BELOWMake a big splash at one of these nine sweet Southern Appalachian swimming holes.THE QUINTESSENTIAL ROAD TRIPDitch the hotels and tourist traps for an authentic experience along the Blue Ridge Mountains from northern Georgia to Pennsylvania. An affinity for bluegrass, a tolerance for camping, and a sense of adventure required.WHAT’S THE POINT?New research indicates that the best way to improve your performance is to think less about yourself and more about others. Just ask A.T. record holder Jennifer Pharr Davis.WHY I STILL WATCHHas the Tour de France lost its luster? Devon O’Neil describes the peaks and valleys of being a cycling sports fan in an age of fallen heroes.
Rhett gestured toward a truck and raised both eyebrows. Before he said a word, I knew that he’d not only found a ride to the put-in, he’d scored big. This guy was cool with stuffing our boats and wet bodies in his truck for the bargain price of ten bucks.We’d gambled by driving an hour to the Pigeon River on an anticipated but not scheduled dam release. Water trickled out of the dam, enough to scoot down the stretch, but just barely. No boaters milled about the take-out; no kayakers from whom to bum a ride. So when we climbed in the rusted out truck without backseats, we were a little giddy about the prospect of getting back to the put-in and Rhett’s truck.The wind screamed in my ears, blowing my hair into wild tangles as we sped east on Highway 40. Rhett leaned over the middle console and pointed to a book of matches bearing the name of a pawn shop. “You work there?”“Nah. That’s where I pawned my chainsaw so I could take my lady for our anniversary dinner.” He paused before adding, “twelve years.”“Where are you taking her?” I asked.“The restaurant next to the McDonalds. You know the one.”Rhett nodded before inquiring about where the dude actually worked. Turns out he’s a tattoo artist during the summer when the town’s population swells from a couple dozen to a couple hundred with the influx of raft guides.Then he pointed out a gravel road winding up a mountain. “The house I built is four miles up that way. Winter’s a bitch.”Rhett laughed, but I was still marveling at how this guy raised the bar for men. My friends act like a guy has gone to extraordinary lengths when he pays for a few beers, much less springs for dinner. Here was a man who not only remembered his anniversary but voluntarily pawned his prized possession to celebrate with his wife.Back at the put-in after we’ve unloaded our gear, after we’ve taken photos, after I’ve handed over another ten bucks for a plastic bottle full of moonshine (secretly hoping that their anniversary dinner might now also involve dessert), and after he drove off to pick up his lady for their big night out on the town, Rhett and I stood in the parking lot digesting it.I turned to Rhett, my hand on my heart. “That’s the most romantic thing I’ve ever heard.”He laughed. “Yeah. That guy’s something else. Did you happen to check out the backseat?”“No, I missed it. Why?”“I counted thirty-two empty Natural Ice cans.”As if on cue, water poured from the dam and we headed out for a second lap.
Tucked away in the mountains of West Virginia, just off of US-64 lies Lewisburg, West Virginia, a town of charm and adventure that boasts an affinity for music and the outdoors.Since 2011, Lewisburg has gained recognition and now has something to offer for foodies, outdoor enthusiasts, and shoppers alike. Before you head out for a visit, consult this handy guide, and prepare yourself to do 48 hours in Lewisburg like a local. Lewisburg Day 1Lodging OptionFor camping with a view, pick the Greenbrier River Campground. Located only 15 minutes from downtown Lewisburg, this campground offers a range of camping, including RV/Trailer sites, tent camping, and cabin rentals. The cabins offer cable, WiFi, a kitchen, and outdoor seating options. Tent camping is located right next to the Greenbrier River. The campground also offers river trips with a kayak, ducky, canoe, pontoon boat, or tube rentals, and has access to spots on the river that are great for light tackle and fly-fishing.Hiking 9.5 Miles The Kate’s Mountain Loop Trail, located in Greenbrier State Forest, is comprised of several trails within the forest. It connects four popular trails (Rocky Ridge, Holsapple, Young Nature, and the Mabel Dowdy) and is a steep hike for those looking for some difficulty. There are several views atop Kate’s Mountain that reward the hiker for every minute of the climb. For directions and more information on the loop, look here. Good Eats“The Hill and Holler is the place to eat and drink when you are still wearing the dirt of the day. They have the best wings in the area (insider’s tip: ask to try all the sauces on the side) and their pizza offerings such as Rock and Roll Shrimp and The Forager are inspiring.” – Kristi Godby, Media Relations Manager and local to the Greenbrier area.LibationsIf you’re still awake, be sure to check out The Asylum, a full service bar and restaurant. The Asylum offers a place for music, food, and drinks, with constant live music and events taking place into the night. The atmosphere is welcoming and, weather dependent, drinks can be enjoyed by the fireplace or on the rooftop deck.Extra! Extra!If your trip happens to be during the first Friday of the month, be sure to head downtown to enjoy “First Fridays After Five.” This monthly event includes live music, art, and the downtown shops and restaurants stay open late, offering free swag and discounts. The festivities last until 9 p.m. and occur every month except January. Lewisburg Day TwoLodging OptionIn the heart of Lewisburg, the General Lewis Inn brings a sense of history during the stay, as it was built in 1834. It is a beautiful place to stay the night, with 25 rooms, a dining room, a lounge, and grounds to explore. Every Saturday and Sunday morning the Inn hosts Garden Yoga at 10:30, and it is open to both guests of the Inn and the public.Fuel Your SoulA new day of adventure deserves a great start. Be sure to grab a bagel from The Bakery on Court Street. Ratings rave it is the “best bagel ever” and will certainly kick start your day in a good direction. Insider tip: The spinach and everything bagels are local favorites. If bagels aren’t your jam, check out The Wild Bean for a breakfast burrito and a Swiftkick, which is 8 oz. of espresso with brown sugar cream over ice.Hit the WavesGrab your kayak and explore the Greenbrier River. A five-mile section of the river, beginning at the Greenbrier River Campground and ending at Alderson, contains class II and III rapids, keeping the day exciting. During the spring season, this section is all class III due to higher water. Shuttle is short; only 8 miles long, and the total time it takes to paddle the stretch is around 2 hours. More sections of the river and their descriptions can be found here. Shred the Trails (or not)Head back out to Greenbrier State Forest to find the 16 miles of single track within the woods. The styles of trail vary, including flowy sections, steep and rocky sections, wood built features, and gravity features. If you’re looking for a cruise, check out the Greenbrier River Trail. Located 4 miles from downtown, this 78-mile trail follows the railroad system. It’s riverside and includes many beautiful views along the way.BrewsFor those looking to taste the local brews, take a tour around the tasting rooms of Smooth Ambler Spirits, Hawk Knob Cider and Meade, and Greenbrier Valley Brewing Company. Each has a unique atmosphere and community, hosting events throughout the years and keeping new brews flowing.Seasonal TreatsIf you’re in town in early April, check out the Lewisburg Chocolate Festival, featuring tastings, bake-offs, demonstrations, and contests. In June, July, and August the Carnegie Hall hosts live music on the lawn. Concerts begin at 6:30 p.m. and are on every 2nd and 4th Thursday. Known as the Ivy Terrace Concert Series, these concerts bring out the town for picnics, music, and cool summer evenings.Early August brings the annual Literary Festival, featuring author visits, outdoor art, music and performances, and other events honoring literature. The Taste of Our Town event, occurring in October, hosts thousands of people in the streets of downtown as Lewisburg celebrates the culture and food of the area. Live music brings more fun to the table and while leaves are changing this is an event sure to be a part of. Holiday season is the final event in Lewisburg and throughout November downtown transforms into a highly decorated (and visited) location. Live music and performances draw in the crowds and, of course, there’s food, carriage rides, and even Santa drops in for a visit.Special thanks goes to Kristi Godby for contributing local expertise on how to experience the hidden treasure of Lewisburg, West Virginia.
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents arrested six longshoremen Dec. 1 at the Port of Miami. The suspects conspired to import millions of dollars worth of cocaine, heroin and marijuana from drug suppliers in Jamaica, Costa Rica and Panamá, according to U.S. officials. “The system must have integrity,” ICE Director John Morton said of the suspects at a news conference following the arrests. “Internal corruption of any kind cannot be tolerated…our ports are open for business, but only for legitimate business.” Charges were also filed against four others, including three men who remain at large in the Caribbean and Central America. The Jamaican Constabulary Force/Narcotics Vetted Unit, the Panamanian Sensitive Investigations Unit and Costa Rican authorities assisted in the investigation, a public affairs officer with the ICE Miami office told Diálogo. Members of the International Longshoremen’s Association (ILA) smuggled narcotics on commercial vessels by placing the drugs in the chassis of cargo containers and in other hiding places throughout the ships, a three-year investigation revealed according to court documents. The drugs were often hand-carried by the longshoremen out of the port and sold on the street, U.S. Attorney Willy Ferrer told the Miami Herald. The investigation, dubbed “Operation Gangplank,” began in July 2009 after ICE agents and task force officers from the Miami-Dade Police Department, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) learned of the alleged smuggling conspiracy. The Miami Border Enforcement Security Task Force seized narcotics with a street value of more than $6 million, including approximately 72 kilograms of cocaine, 2.5 kilograms of heroin, and 1,648 kilograms or 3,625 pounds of marijuana during the investigation. Authorities arrested and charged longshoremen Albert W. Hines, 30, of Pembroke Pines, Fla.; Michael Canada, 30, of Miramar, Fla.; Alexander Terrell Pratt, 33, of Miami; Santonio Riou, 33, of Miami; Jessie Lamons, 58, of Miami; and Morris Henderson, 32, of Miami, who is currently in federal custody on ecstasy trafficking and weapons charges. Francisco Gonzalez, 52, of Coral Springs, Fla. Devin Jackson, 42, residing in Costa Rica; Climaco Asprilla, 37, residing in Panama; and Mickey Honeyghan, 39, of Jamaica also are charged in the 20-count indictment. Longshoreman Vondre Asbury, 24, of Miami, also was previously arrested in February 2009, and is currently in federal prison on cocaine trafficking and importation charges. Each faces up to life in prison if convicted on all charges. No details were released on how the case was pursued in Costa Rica, Panamá and Jamaica and the court documents lacked specifics on how the alleged smuggling was carried out. Officials at the Dec. 1 news conference highlighted the work of 21 other ICE task forces around the United States and in Mexico City that focus on commercial shipping. The Port of Miami serves about 20 shipping lines that call on 250 ports around the world. It handles more than 200,000 shipping containers per year. By Dialogo December 10, 2010
As former C.O. of these peruvian diesel electric submarines I do express by heart my congratulations to Commander Vergara and his crew having in mind these boats were built almost four decades ago but still are an strong underwater threat for the most advanced T.F. Than you to our USN fellows for the high level of confidence among our navies. Vice Admiral (R) Gustavo Barragan I join, with pleasure, my ex-classmate GustavoÂ´s comment. Lieutenant (R) Ernesto Montagne The experience to maintain and make the most out of the conventional submarine forces has its highest level among the Peruvian military power. Take a look to these pictures and report: http://esosi.org/peru-mil/The USA Naval Commanders know they have to train with these forces yearly for a mutual benefit. The Almirante Miguel Grau started it all in Peru 130 years ago, demonstrating how him and his crew alone could sink and pose a serious threat to a fleet of English and Chilean forces at the Pacific War. Since then the Peruvian naval forces have followed that outstanding performance tradition. This trainning exercises serves not only as a platform to make our armed forces (Peruvian Navy) more ready for electronic warfare combat,but also to strentghten the traditional friendship between U.S.A, and Peru. After 24 days at sea, the Peruvian naval submarine BAP Antofagasta (SS-32) arrived at U.S. Naval Station Mayport, in Florida, to participate in the SUBDIEX 2011 exercise with U.S. Navy units. The exercise is part of the Diesel Electric Submarine Initiative (DESI), a program that will require the unit to remain deployed for approximately 131 days. The Antofagasta’s commander, Commander Alberto Vergara Velarde, was welcomed by the Peruvian naval attaché in the United States, Rear Admiral Jorge Portocarrero, the head of planning for the U.S. Fourth Fleet, Captain Domenick Micillo, and the top commander of the USS Underwood, Commander Peter Mirisola, among others. The annual DESI exercises provide valuable training opportunities for the U.S. Navy’s combat and expeditionary groups in operations against silent diesel-electric submarines. Part of these exercises includes analysis of the results of the maneuvers, making it possible to evaluate operational capabilities and levels. The program has chiefly concentrated on training with South American navies that use diesel submarines, which although they do not have the firepower, speed, or deployment capacity of nuclear-powered submarines, have proven very difficult for U.S. submariners to track. For their part, the Peruvian crew will have the opportunity to practice anti-surface and anti-submarine tactics in scenarios that will include simulated clashes with some of the most powerful units currently in service and will also have the opportunity to strengthen ties of security and interoperability with the U.S. Navy. By Dialogo August 24, 2011